Selasa, 8 April 2014

History Of Cockfighting 2

Cock fighting is said to be the world's oldest spectator sport. It goes back 6,000 years in Persia.[6]
According to one author, there is evidence that cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization.[7] The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) holds:[8]
The sport was popular in ancient times in India, China, Persia, and other Eastern countries and was introduced into Ancient Greece in the time of Themistocles (c. 524–460 BC). For a long time the Romans affected to despise this "Greek diversion", but they ended up adopting it so enthusiastically that the agricultural writer Columella (1st century AD) complained that its devotees often spent their whole patrimony in betting at the side of the pit.
The significance of the original name of Mohenjo-daro inferring that the city was "the city of the cock" takes on great significance if taking into account that it has been claimed that the chicken was domesticated in India in 6000 BC.[9][10] However, according to a recent study,[11] "it is not known whether these birds made much contribution to the modern domestic fowl. Chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley (2500-2100 BC) may have been the main source of diffusion throughout the world." "Within the Indus Valley, indications are that chickens were used for sport and not for food (Zeuner 1963)"[12] and that by 1000 BC they had assumed "religious significance".[12]
Some additional insight into the pre-history of European and American secular cockfighting may be taken from theThe London Encyclopaedia:
At first cockfighting was partly a religious and partly a political institution at Athens; and was continued for improving the seeds of valor in the minds of their youth, but was afterwards perverted both there and in the other parts of Greece to a common pastime, without any political or religious intention.[13]
The image of a fighting rooster has been found the 6th century BC seal of Jaazaniah, discovered during the excavation of the biblical city of Mizpah in Benjamin, nearJerusalem.[14] It is one of the earliest depictions of a fighting rooster ever recovered.[14][15] This depiction is consistent with the remains of these birds found at other Israelite Iron Age sites, when the rooster was used as a fighting bird; they are also pictured on other seals from the period as a symbol of ferocity, such as on the one engraved on a late-7th-century BC red jasper seal inscribed "Jehoahaz, son of the king",[16][17] which likely belonged to Jehoahaz of Judah "while he was still a prince during his father's life."[18]
The anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote the influential essay Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, on the meaning of the cockfight in Balinese culture.

Regional variations[edit]

Spurs taped and tied onto legs
In some regional variations, the birds are equipped with either metal spurs (called gaffs) or knives, tied to the leg in the area where the bird's natural spur has been partially removed. A cockspur is a bracelet (often made of leather) with a curved, sharp spike which is attached to the leg of the bird. The spikes typically range in length from "short spurs" of just over an inch to "long spurs" almost two and a half inches long. In the highest levels of 17th century English cockfighting, the spikes were made of silver. Ironically, the sharp spurs have been known to injure or even kill the bird handlers.[19][20] In the naked heelvariation, the bird's natural spurs are left intact and sharpened: fighting is done without gaffs or taping, particularly in India (especially in Tamil Nadu). There it is mostly fought naked heel and either three rounds of twenty minutes with a gap of again twenty minutes or four rounds of fifteen minutes each and a gap of fifteen minutes between them.[21]
NicaraguaVenezuelaColombiaEcuador, France, Mexico, Dominican RepublicPhilippinesPeruPanamaPuerto Rico,Canary IslandsSaipan, and Guam have arenas with seats or bleachers for spectators surrounding the ring. In many countries, the spectacle of cockfighting is as popular as baseball and American football are in the United States.[clarification needed] Among the competitors who raise fighting cocks, there is great pride in the prowess of their birds and in winning a championship.

Americas[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Cockfight is a popular activity in Cuba. It is a seasonal sport, held only during the freshest months of the year (November to April). Cocks are not ready to fight and their plumage is molting during the warmest months (May to October).
In Cuba the tradition is to fix detachable natural (non-artificial) spurs to both legs of the fighting cocks. Before fixing the detachable spurs, the natural spurs should be trimmed, leaving a trunk not longer than 3 millimeters. The final length of the detached spurs ranks from 22 to 25 millimeters according to the relevance of the match.
Cockfights are held in a round arena commonly called valla, surrounded by a small fence around which the spectators are accommodated.
Comb and wattles should be previously trimmed but feathers should not be necessarily groomed as well, although tradition imposes an extensive feather trimming. The feathers of the chest, hackle and thighs are generally shorn completely off. The reasons for this vary among individual game fowl enthusiasts (see alsoGamecock).
Cocks should have a weight within the rank of 50-69 Castilian ounces (2300-3180 grams) to be admitted. One Castilian pound of 16 ounces is equivalent to 460,0093 grams.
The combatants are strictly paired up to fight according to their body weight. The allowed difference in weight between the contenders ranks from half to one ounce (14-29 grams) according to the body weight.
Fights are limited to a single round of 30 minutes, but statistics show that more than 50% of the fights end within the first five minutes.
The persons proved to be betting are severely punished with a temporary or definite expulsion from the tournaments and the prohibition to participate in further meetings.[22]

Mexico[edit]

Cockfight in Querétaro, Mexico
Cockfight in Lima, Peru
Two gamecocks fighting, Thailand, 1967
It is believed that cockfighting in Mexico originated from the Philippines during height of Manila-Acapulco galleon trade. Filipino sailors brought with them their culture such as the drinking of tuba and cockfighting. In Aguascalientes, a state capital, one of the city's principal concert halls is the cockfighting arena, the palenque. Palenques are very common throughout the country, with almost every major city having one, and are closely related to Mexican traditional music performers, such as Vicente Fernández, and also being (as mentioned below) the stage for pop artists as well. During the San Marcos Fair, well known throughout Mexico, cockfights alternate with important concerts, where the singers or dancers perform from the cockpit. Many popular singers have performed there, e.g. Latin Grammy winners Alejandro Fernández and Alejandra Guzmán.[citation needed].

Peru[edit]

In Peru, cockfighting is allowed and it takes place in coliseums with round sand fields. Only a judge and two managers each carrying a cock are allowed in the field. Judges use tables to facilitate the refereeing of fights.
Cockfighting championships of Peru are of two kinds, Beak and Spur. The Peruvian Razor Rooster ('Gallo Navajero Peruano') features in Spur fights. In Spur fights the weight and size of the rooster varies. There are free weight championships as well.
The most important cockfighting championships take place in the Lima Region at the Coliseums Sandia, Rosedal, Abraham Wong, The Peruvian Cockfighting Circle's Coliseum and The Valentino, of the Rooster Breeders' Association of Peru.[23]

Brazil[edit]

Cockfighting, known in Brazil as rinha de galos ("baiting the rooster"), was banned in 1934 with the help of President Getúlio Vargas through Brazil's 1934 constitution, passed on 16 July. Based on the recognition of animals in the Constitution, a Brazilian Supreme Court ruling resulted in the ban of animal related activities that involve claimed "animal suffering such as cock fighting, and a tradition practiced in southern Brazil, known as “Farra do Boi” (the Oxen Festival)",[24] stating that "animals also have the right to legal protection against mistreatment and suffering".[25]

Asia[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cockfighting is common throughout all of Southeast Asia, where it is implicated in spreading bird flu.[26][27] Like IslamChristianitymight shun the belief in spirits, but in Southeast Asia, as in Mexico, indigenous interpretations of the veneration of saints andpassion plays dominate. In the Christian northern Philippines, respect is accorded the veneration of traditional anito (spirits),shamans number in the thousands and Catholic priests are powerless to stop cockfighting, a popular form of fertility worshipamong almost all Southeast Asians.[28] Also in rural northern Thailand a religious ceremony honoring ancestral spirits takes place known as "faun phii", spirit dance or ghost dance, and includes offerings for ancestors with spirit mediums sword fighting, spirit possessed dancing, and "spirit mediums cock fighting",[29] in a spiritual cockfight.

Bali[edit]

Cockfighting is a very old tradition in Balinese Hinduism, the Batur Bang Inscriptions I (from the year 933) and the Batuan Inscription (dated 944 on the Balinese Caka calendar) disclose that the tabuh rah ritual has existed for centuries.[30] In Bali, cockfights, known as tajen, are practiced in an ancient religious purification ritual to expel evil spirits.[31] This ritual, a form of animal sacrifice, is called tabuh rah ("pouring blood").[32] The purpose of tabuh rah is to provide an offering (the blood of the losing chicken) to the evil spirits. Cockfighting is a religious obligation at every Balinese temple festival or religious ceremony.[33] Cockfights without a religious purpose are considered gambling in Indonesia. Women are generally not involved in the tabuh rah process.
All forms of gambling, including the gambling within secular cockfighting, were made illegal in 1981 by the Indonesian government, while the religious aspects of cockfighting within Balinese Hinduism remain protected.
The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz published his most famous work, Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, on the practice of cockfights in Bali. In it, he argued that the cockfight served as a pastiche or model of wider Balinese society from which judgments about other aspects of the culture could be drawn.

Japan[edit]

Cockfighting is similar to boxing for the younger roosters as they battle for a victory with their blunt natural spurs or lack thereof and after maturity they battle with their mature natural spurs which may have become pointed. Despite fighting cocks allowed to be used in cockfighting, "the state has designated them a protected species".[34]

Southern India[edit]

A cockfight in Tamil Nadu, India
A cockfight on the outskirts ofKabul, Afghanistan
A cockfight in Hilongos, Philippines
Cockfighting (Vetrukkaal seval porr in Tamil which means "naked heel cock fight") (Kodi Pandem in Telugu) (Kori katta in Tulu) is a favourite sport of people living in the coastal region of Andhra PradeshDakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Tulu Naduregion of Karnataka, and the state of Tamil nadu India. Three- or four-inch blades (Bal in Tulu) are attached to the cocks' legs. Knockout fights to the death are widely practised in Andhra Pradesh. In Tamil Nadu, the winner is decided after three or four rounds. People watch with intense interest surrounding the cocks. The sport has gradually become a gambling sport.
In Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Tanjore, Trichy and Salem Districts, only naked heel sport is performed. In Erode, Thiruppur, Karur and Coimbatore districts only bloody blade fights are conducted. During festival seasons, this is the major game for men. Women normally don't participate. There are many rare breeds preserved by these cock fighters.[citation needed]
Cockfighting in Tamil Nadu is mentioned in ancient literature like Manu Needhi SastiramKattu Seval Sastiram, and othersangam-age literature, 2,000 years old. It is referred to as the favourite pastime for Maravars or the warriors of Tamil Country. It is acknowledged as one of the 64 "arts" widely spoken by the scholars and mastered by the ancestors/scholars of this part of the world. In earlier days they were fighting with the jungle fowl and its variants later, due to the naval expeditions to Java and Malayby the Pandian Rulers the local poultry of that land might have found its way to Tamil Nadu and a new strain/breed started its development in here which later spread to many places such as India. The newer breeds which are known now are The "Reja" (which is a short Variety), "Sonatol", "Calcutta Asil", "Madras Asil", "Kalkatiya" (Also known as "Kadhar" synonymous to Black Asils), The Reds (Also known locally as "Yakuth"), The Yellow Variants (Also known as The "Peela" Asil), The Grey is known locally as "Java" and its variants reddish grey as "Dummer". Also they have a "henny" variety cock known locally as "Pettai Madhiri" the literal meaning is "it looks like a hen", though this variety is said to have come from "Singala Island", or Sri Lanka.In tamilnadu instead of rings line is drawn and if the cock comes out of the line or falls or dies it means the cock has lost there are several Tamil films based on cock.the most rare and aggressive variety is called galva,such lineage possess a mustache like hair found grown beneath its lower beak.spot fight and agreement fights are usually conducted in the district of tamilnadu.agreement fights are conducted by showing the roosters 21 days advance by both the parties and a date is fixed agreeing upon terms.21 days is fixed because a hen takes 21 days to hatch its eggs.in these 21days preparation procedures such as medication and stamina boosters are given orally by experts, exercise and swimming is given at regular intervals,the nail or mullu is sharpened one day before the actual day of fight.a man named gowriaar is the person who popularised the game in tamilnadu and southern kerala,preparation and training experts keep their technique secret.coimbatore arumugan is one of the best traditional trainer and cockfighting preparation expert at present in tamilnadu and palakkad kunjan in southern kerala.
The cockfight, or more accurately expressed the secular cockfight, is an intense sportrecreation, or pastime to some, while to others, the cockfight remains an ancient religious ritual, a sacred ceremony(i.e. a religious and spiritual cockfight) associated with the ‘daivasthanams’ (temples) and held at the temples precincts.[35] In January 2012 at India's 'Sun God' Festival the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) district committee, demanded that police not interfere in the cockfighting known as ‘kozhi kettu’ as it is a part of the temple rituals, while the police replied they would not interfere if the cockfight is held at a temple.[36]

Iraq[edit]

Cockfighting is illegal but widespread in Iraq. The attendees come to gamble or just for the entertainment. A rooster can cost up to $8,000. The most-prized birds are called Harati, which means that they are of Turkish or Indian origin, and have muscular legs and necks.[37]

Pakistan[edit]

Cockfighting is a popular sport in rural Pakistan; however, "betting is illegal under the Prevention of Gambling Act 1977".[38] Betting is illegal, but police often turn a blind eye towards it. In Sindh (one of 4 major provinces), people are fond of keeping fighting cock breed, known as Sindhi aseel in Pakistan. These cocks are noted being tall, heavy and good at fighting. Another popular breed is called Mianwali Aseel.

Philippines[edit]

World Gamefowl Expo 2014, World Trade Center Metro Manila
.
Sabong is a popular pastime in the Philippines where both illegal and legal cockfights occur. Legal cockfights are held in cockpits every week, whilst Illegal ones called tupada or tigbakay, are held in secluded cockpits where authorities cannot raid them. In both types, knives or gaffs are used. There are two kinds of knives used in Philippine cockfighting. The single edge blade (use in derbies) and double edged blades, lengths of knives also vary. All knives are attached on the left leg of the bird, but depending on agreement between owners, blades can be attached on the right or even on both legs. Sabong and illegal tupada, are judged by a referee called sentensyador or koyme, whose verdict is final and not subject to any appeal.[39]Bets are usually taken by the kristo, so named because of his outstretched hands when calling out wagers from the audience and skillfully doing so purely from memory.
The country has hosted several World Slasher Cup derbies, held biannually at Araneta ColiseumQuezon City, where the world's leading game fowl breeders gather. The World Gamefowl Expo 2014 was held in the World Trade Center Metro Manila.
Contrary to popular belief, sabong was not introduced to the islands by the Spanish. Cockfighting was already flourishing in pre-colonial Philippines, as recorded byAntonio Pigafetta, the Italian diarist aboard Ferdinand Magellan’s 1521 expedition. The Philippines instead derives the practise from the fact that it shares elements of Indian and other Southeast Asian cultures, where the jungle fowl (bankivoid) and Oriental type of chicken are endemic.

Oceania[edit]

In the Mariana Islands in Micronesia, the sport of cockfighting has been considered a "cultural tradition" dating back to Spanish rule. Cockfighting became more popular with an influx of Filipino immigrants to the islands before and after World War II. Fights are held throughout the week at a government licensed pit in the village of Dededo, Guam, and in other villages during fiestas, where a patron saint of the village is celebrated. Imported roosters and hens from the U.S. mainlandfetch heavy prices that can reach as much as a thousand dollars each.[citation needed] On the island of Saipan, north of Guam, legal cockfighting takes place several times a week in an arena called the Dome in the village of Gualo Rai.

Other bird species[edit]

In 2009, authorities caught and shut down an illegal songbird-fighting ring in Shelton, Connecticut that had been using Saffron Finches and canaries.[40] TheAmerican Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals commented that such songbird fighting is extremely rare. The ancient Greeks used to practice quail fighting, using the common quail Coturnix coturnix.[41] Also in south east Asia and ancient China were used to practice "quail fighting", but using the femalebuttonquails.

Legal issues[edit]

Cockfight in Vietnam.
Cockfight in OtavaloEcuador
In many places, cockfights and other animal fights have been outlawed, often based on opposition to gambling or animal cruelty. In the United States cockfighting is against the law. In some American states it is not illegal to possess, raise, train, advertise, or trade cocks or accoutrements that could be used for cockfighting. However, actively participating in a cockfight in any manner is illegal: advertising, transporting participants or spectators, placing wagers, hosting an event, etc. It is common for law enforcement to confiscate property associated with any cockfighting activity.[42]

Europe[edit]

Spain[edit]

Cockfighting is banned in Spain except in the Canary Islands and Andalusia. Organisations such as the WWF/Adena and some political parties are trying to ban it there too.[43][44][45] The law allows it but tries to make it disappear "naturally" by blocking its expansion.[46] Contrasting with the rest of the country (except with Catalonia), bullfighting is instead forbidden in the Canary Islands, since it is not considered traditional, unlike cockfighting.
Cockfighting is also legal in Andalusia in the cities and villages where it is considered traditional. With its famous Jerezanos race of fighting cocks, the Cádiz province is the most popular centre of cockfighting in Andalusia.

United Kingdom[edit]

Cockfighting was banned outright in England and Wales and in the British Overseas Territories with the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835. Sixty years later, in 1895, cockfighting was also banned in Scotland, where it had been relatively common in the 18th century.[47] A reconstructed cockpit from Denbigh in North Wales may be found at St Fagans National History Museum inCardiff[48] and a reference exists in 1774 to a cockpit at Stanecastle in Scotland.[49]
According to the RSPCA, cockfighting in England and Wales still takes place, but has declined in recent years.[50]

France[edit]

Holding cockfights is a crime in France, but there is an exemption under subparagraph 3 of article 521-1 of the French penal code for cockfights and bullfights in locales where an uninterrupted tradition exists for them. Thus, cockfighting is allowed in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, in Metropolitan France, where it takes place in a small number of towns including RaimbeaucourtLa Bistade[51] and other villages around Lille.[52] On Réunion Island, there are five officially authorizedgallodromes (i.e. cockfighting arenas). The Nord-Pas-de-Calais has a dozen gallodromes, that also target the Belgian associations of aficionados, who travel to France to avoid the prohibition of cockfighting in Belgium. The Nord-Pas-de Calais has its own race of fighting cocks the "Combattant de Nord".
There is currently a flow of British aficionados to cockfights that come from January to June to the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to participate in the cockfights. Some of them have been arrested at the British border for transporting cockerels or material for cockfights, which has led to a small cottage industry of British-owned cockerel farms. Likewise, some caretakers in Nord-Pas-de-Calais cater exclusively to British cockfighters who, by law, are not permitted to transport and care for their birds in the United Kingdom.[citation needed]

Americas[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Cockfighting was so common during the Cuban colonization by Spain, that there were arenas in every urban and rural town. The first official known document about cockfighting in Cuba dates from 1737. It is a royal decree asking, to the governor of the island, a report about the inconveniences that might cause cockfights "with the people from land and sea" and asking for information about rentals of the games. The Spaniard es:Miguel Tacón y Rosique, Lieutenant General and governor of the colony, banned cockfighting by a decree dated on October 20, 1835, limiting these spectacles only to holidays.
In 1844 a decree dictated by the Captain General of the island, es:Leopoldo O'Donnell, forbade to non-white people the attendance to these shows. During the second half of the 19th century many authorizations were conceded for building arenas, until General es:Juan Rius Rivera, then civilian governor in Havana, prohibited cockfighting by a decree of October 31. 1899 and later the Cuban governor, General Leonard Wood, dictated the military order No.165 prohibiting cockfights in the whole country since June 1, 1900.[22]
In the first half of the 20th century, legality of cockfights suffered several ups and downs.[53]
In 1909 the then Cuban president es:José Miguel Gómez, with the intention to gain followers, allowed cockfights once again, and then regulations were agreed for the fights.[54]
Up to beginnings of 1968 cockfights used to be held everywhere in the country, but with the purpose of stopping the bets, the arenas were closed and the fights forbidden by the authorities. In 1980 authorities legallized cockfights again and a state business organization was created with the participation of the private breeders, grouped in territories. Every year the state organization announces several national tournaments from January to April, makes trade shows and sells fighting cocks to clients from other Caribbean countries.[22]

United States[edit]

Cockfighting club in Puerto Rico, 1937.
In the United States, cockfighting is now illegal in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. The last state to implement astate law banning cockfighting was Louisiana; the Louisiana State Legislature voted to approve a Louisiana ban in June 2007.[55] The ban took effect in August 2008.[56] Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia have made cockfighting afelony. It is illegal in all 50 states to knowingly attend a cockfight and/or bring a minor to the event. On February 7, 2014 President Obama signed the Farm Bill which contained the U.S. H.R. 366/S. 666—Animal Fighting Spectator Prohibition Act. "The final bill includes a provision making it a federal crime to attend or bring a child under the age of 16 to an animal fighting event[.]" [57] "The Animal Fighting Spectator Prohibition Act would make it a federal offense to knowingly attend an organized animal fight and would impose additional penalties for bringing children to animal fights. Violators would face up to one year in prison for attending a fight, and up to three years in prison for bringing a minor to a fight." [58] In the District of Columbia it is illegal to be a spectator at cockfights. Animal welfare activists continue to lobby for a ban on the sport. Cockfighting remains legal in the United States territories of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam, although in 2006, the Virgin Islands adopted a law banning modifications such as the use of artificial spurs.
The Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act, a federal law that made it a federal crime to transfer cockfighting implements across state or national borders and increasing the penalty for violations of federal animal fighting laws to three years in prison became law in 2007. It passed the House of Representatives 368-39 and the Senate by unanimous consent and was signed into law by PresidentGeorge W. Bush.[59]
The Animal Welfare Act was amended again in 2008 when provisions were included in the 2008 Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246). These provisions tightened prohibitions on dog and other animal fighting activities, and increase penalties for violation of the act.[60]
On 8 February 2014, law enforcement made New York's largest cockfighting bust where they seized 3,000 birds and arrested roughly 70 people across three counties. The investigation was deemed the name "Operation Angry Birds" and they made three raids: a cockfight in Queens, a pet shop in Brooklyn, and a farm inPlattekill. The raids were performed by the task force, along with New York State Police, the Homeland Security Department and the Ulster County sheriff's office. Upon entry of the Queens cockfight, authorities found the birds in small cages with razors attached to them. The 70 individuals who attended the event were taken into custody. All but 9 of these men were let go. The nine men were given felony arrests and animal-fighting charges.[61][62][63]

Australia[edit]

Cockfighting, and the possession of cockfighting equipment, is illegal in Australia[64][65]